How Is Silk Made? The Ethical Dilemma of Its Origins

Silk production methods go back thousands of years, but why are they deemed an ethical concern? Also, how is silk made and where does it come from?

By Ryan Egglestone
Nov 28, 2023 3:00 PMMar 25, 2024 7:41 PM
(Credit: Timekeep/Shutterstock)


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Silk is a fabric like no other. Historically, its unmatched beauty, durability, and comfort was prized by the ranks of nobility — Roman and Arabian aristocrats in particular. The rarity of the fabric made it all the more precious.

For more than a thousand years, how silk was produced remained a well-guarded secret kept by ancient China, reluctant to let its monopoly go. The fabric was one of the most valued commodities that traveled westward along the vast network known as the Silk Road. In that era, silk was worth as much as its weight in gold and was sometimes used as a form of currency.

What is it about silk that has captivated humanity for thousands of years, making it a still-sought-after status symbol today?

Where Does Silk Come From?

Unlike cotton or hemp, which are made from plant fibers, silk is a protein fiber made from the saliva of silkworms, a small insect scientifically known as the Bombyx mori moth

Early in a silkworm’s life cycle, it can spin silk in one unbroken single thread from spinnerets on its head to create a cocoon, a protective covering for itself as it is transformed into a moth.

How Was Silk Made?

The process of harvesting these cocoons for silk is called sericulture, and has existed for thousands of years. Essentially, farmers create an artificial environment for the moths to lay their eggs on special paper, where they will hatch and become larvae. Next, they’re fed a steady diet of mulberry leaves, and after roughly 35 days of growing and multiplying in size, they’re ready to make their cocoon. Once their cocoon is complete, the sericulture process traditionally includes killing the silkworm by boiling or steaming it alive.

This boiling step also blunts a natural chemical substance known as sericin, which otherwise would cause the cocoons to harden, resulting in a fabric that’s not as soft. This is followed by reeling, where cocoons are unraveled and become one continuous string that can stretch up to hundreds of yards long. Multiple long silk strands are then entwined to create silk thread. Eventually, that silk thread is woven into a fabric for commercial use.

Read More: What Was Traded On the Silk Road?

How Is Silk Made Now?

Today, the process of harvesting the eggs, rearing silkworms, and killing them in their cocoons happens continuously to keep up with the demand for silk. 

Domesticated Bombyx mori moths, through selective breeding, have lost their ability to fly and have atrophied wings. As a result, silk-farming practices have been criticized in recent years, and animal rights groups such as PETA have called for a ban on silk. 

Are Silkworms Killed to Make Silk?

Yes, silkworms are typically killed in the process of making traditional silk. Some estimates say that producing 1 pound of silk requires approximately 2,000 to 3,000 silkworms to be killed.

Is Silk Vegan?

No, silk is generally not considered vegan. Veganism avoids using animal products and byproducts, particularly those that involve harm to animals, and traditional silk is not aligned with vegan principles.

Read More: The Silkworm Road: How A Moth Became An Economic Powerhouse

Can Silk Be Made Ethically?

In some silk-producing countries, such as China, the boiled silkworms are eaten after cocoon harvesting. Although eating silkworms means less bio waste and provides some nutritional value, only a small percentage of the fabric industry's silkworms are actually consumed.

However, insect-eating could become more commonplace sometime in the future, as global demand for sustainable animal-based food increases.  

Is Ahimsa Silk Ethical?

Beyond that, there is another way to harvest silk without harming or killing silkworms. This method was developed in India, and it produces what's known as ahimsa silk. Sometimes it’s referred to as ethical silk, peace silk, or cruelty-free silk. 

Although ahimsa silk production includes many of the traditional sericulture practices, harvesting doesn’t involve killing the worms. Instead, the worms are allowed to hatch from their cocoon, or sometimes the cocoons are cut open, and the pupae are tipped out.

Why Is Peace Silk More Expensive?

If allowed to hatch, the pupae spend an extra 7-10 days in the cocoon, which starts to harden. This tends to result in lower silk yields and threads that are broken into multiple strands, which makes for a rougher fabric. Since ahimsa silk is more difficult to produce, it tends to be more expensive than its conventionally farmed counterpart. Yet, it is gaining popularity and is seen as a viable alternative in the fashion industry. 

Read More: Silk-Making Is an Ancient Practice That Presents an Ethical Dilemma

Why Is Silk Still So Desirable?

In the meantime, some fashion labels have ditched silk, but demand for the luxurious fabric hasn’t completely dissolved.

One of the reasons silk is prized is its ability to seemingly change colors and shades when viewed in different lighting. This is thanks to its fibroin proteins, the triangularly shaped molecules found in the material. 

Read More: The Silk Road Was More Than a Vast Trade Route

The molecular structure causes light to refract at unique angles, giving silk its unmistakable sheen and eye-catching appearance.

Silk also holds great potential in the biomedical field. Because it’s strong and antimicrobial, silk has a long history in medicine. Recently, it’s even been explored for its potential in skin regeneration.

Frequently Asked Questions About Silk

What Is Silk Made Of?

Silk is a natural protein fiber primarily composed of fibroin. It is produced by certain insect larvae to form cocoons, the most notable being the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori

What Is Silk? 

Silk is a luxurious and highly prized natural fiber known for its sheen, softness, and strength. Historically associated with wealth and elegance, silk is produced by the larvae of specific moths, mainly the mulberry silkworm. The unique properties of silk, including its insulating capacity and hypoallergenic nature, make it a sought-after material in the textile industry.

What Is Made of Silk? 

Silk is used to create a wide range of products, highlighting its versatility and luxury. Common items made from silk include clothing like dresses, shirts, ties, and scarves. Additionally, silk is used in home furnishings, such as bedding, curtains, and upholstery, as well as in some types of surgical sutures and parachutes due to its strength and biocompatibility.

How Silk Is Made?

The process of making silk begins with silkworms, which spin cocoons around themselves. These cocoons are then carefully unraveled to extract long silk threads, which are subsequently treated, dyed, and woven into fabric. This labor-intensive process contributes to the exclusivity and high cost of silk products.

Read More: What Was the Silk Road and What Happened to It?

This article was originally published on Jan. 12, 2021 and has since been updated by the Discover staff.

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