The Sciences

One Last Stab

Cosmic VarianceBy Sean CarrollOct 1, 2010 12:12 PM


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I've been too busy to contribute much to the laws of physics discussion, and now I'm about to hop on a plane to bluegrass country. But I am sincerely seeking the best way to make this point clear, so one more quick try. And I do appreciate the back-and-forth thus far; sometimes frustrating, but certainly very useful to me. If you were to ask a contemporary scientist why a table is solid, they would give you an explanation that comes down to the properties of the molecules of which it is made, which in turn reflect a combination of the size of the atoms as determined by quantum mechanics, and the electrostatic interaction between those atoms. If you were to ask why the Sun shines, you would get a story in terms of protons and neutrons fusing and releasing energy. If you were to ask what happens when a person flexes a muscle, you would hear about signals sent through nerves by the transmission of ions across electromagnetic potentials and various chemical interactions. And so on with innumerable other questions about how everyday phenomena work. In every single case, the basic underlying story (if that happens to be what you're interested in, and again there are plenty of other interesting things out there) would involve the particles of the Standard Model, interacting through electromagnetism, gravity, and the nuclear forces, according to the principles of quantum mechanics and general relativity. One hundred years ago, you would not have heard that story, because it hadn't yet been put together. But -- here's the important part -- one thousand years from now, you will still hear precisely that same story. There might be new layers underneath, but it won't be necessary to refer to them to give a sufficient answer to the original question. There will certainly be much greater understanding of the collective behavior of these underlying particles and forces, which is where most of the great work in modern science is being done. And hopefully there will be a deeper story about why we have the laws we do, how gravity and quantum mechanics play together, how best to interpret quantum mechanics, and so on. What there won't be is some dramatic paradigm shift that says "Oops, sorry about those electrons and protons and neutrons, we found that they don't really exist. Now it's zylbots all the way down." Nor will we have discovered new fundamental particles and forces that are crucial to telling the story of everyday phenomena. If those existed, we would have found them by now. The view of electrons and protons and neutrons interacting through the Standard Model and gravity will stay with us forever -- added to and better understood, but never replaced or drastically modified. I'm not actually trying to say something controversial. I think it is pretty unambiguously correct, once I actually say it clearly. But it's something I think is not as widely appreciated as it really should be.

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