: This week, scientists say that they've passed a chemistry milestone by creating the world's first practical photosynthesis device. The playing-card-sized photosynthetic gadget uses sunlight to split water molecules into oxygen and hydrogen, which can then be used to produce energy, and is reputedly 10 times more efficient than a natural leaf. Researchers say they expect it to revolutionize power storage, especially in remote areas that don't currently have electricity. "A practical artificial leaf has been one of the Holy Grails of science for decades," says lead researcher Daniel Nocera, who's presenting this research at the National Meeting of the American Chemical Society this week. How the Heck:
What's the News
The artificial leaf uses nickel and cobalt as catalysts to split water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen by facilitating oxygen-oxygen bonding.
Oxygen and hydrogen molecules are then sent to a fuel cell that can produce electricity. If the device is placed in a one-gallon bucket of water in bright sunlight, it can reportedly produce enough electricity to power a house in a developing nation.
What's the Context:
The very first artificial leaf was created by John Turner of the U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Boulder, Colorado, over a decade ago. The device lasted for only one day and was made of expensive metals, making it impractical.
This new artificial leaf uses nickel and cobalt, which are relatively cheap, and has so far operated continuously for at least 45 hours, making it the first practical artificial leaf.
In 2008, Nocera announced a way of splitting water using cobalt and platinum, a breakthrough at the time. Now, by using nickel instead of the more expensive platinum, he's made the entire process economically feasible, in addition to combining everything into a working prototype.
Nocera has appeared in Discover before, including his National Science Foundation briefing on energy storage.
Scientists are working to increase the device's efficiency still higher.
Tata Group, an Indian conglomerate, plans on creating a power plant based on this research within the next year and a half.
Reference: Daniel Nocera et al. 241^st National Meeting of the American Chemical Society. March 27-31, 2011 Anaheim, California, USA
Image: Wikimedia Commons / Daniel Schwen