Register for an account


Enter your name and email address below.

Your email address is used to log in and will not be shared or sold. Read our privacy policy.


Website access code

Enter your access code into the form field below.

If you are a Zinio, Nook, Kindle, Apple, or Google Play subscriber, you can enter your website access code to gain subscriber access. Your website access code is located in the upper right corner of the Table of Contents page of your digital edition.

Planet Earth

Prehistoric Rock Art Owes Its Colors to Thriving Microbial Colonies

80beatsBy Eliza StricklandDecember 30, 2010 12:07 AM


Sign up for our email newsletter for the latest science news


A particular set of rock paintings dating from more than 40,000 years ago don't seem to be made of paint anymore. According to a new study published in the journal Antiquity, the vibrant artworks were long ago colonized by colorful microbes, which serve as "living pigments" in the paintings. Lead researcher Jack Pettigrew, of the University of Queensland in Australia, explains:

"'Living pigments' is a metaphorical device to refer to the fact that the pigments of the original paint have been replaced by pigmented micro-organisms.... These organisms are alive and could have replenished themselves over endless millennia to explain the freshness of the paintings' appearance." [BBC News]

When the researchers analyzed the so-called Bradshaw rock artworks found in Western Australia's Kimberley region, they didn't find paint. Instead they found a black fungus, probably belonging to a fungi group known as Chaetothyriales, as well as a reddish organism that is suspected to be a species of cyanobacteria


Successive generations of these fungi grow by cannibalising their predecessors. That means that if the initial paint layer - from tens of thousands of years ago - had spores of the fungus within it, the current fungal inhabitants may be direct descendants. The team also noted that the original paint may have had nutrients in it that "kick-started" a mutual relationship between the black fungi and red bacteria that often appear together. The fungi can provide water to the bacteria, while the bacteria provide carbohydrates to the fungi. [BBC News]


The constant refreshing of the microbes that make up the paintings may account for the difficulty researchers have had in dating the Bradshaw artworks. According to the study, these works have only been indirectly dated via their subject matter: they're thought to have been painted between 70,000 years ago, when the first boab trees

began growing in Australia, and 46,000 years ago, when the megafauna depicted in the paintings died out. Related Content: 80beats: Evidence of Smart, Jewelry-Making Neanderthals Is Challenged

80beats: Etched Ostrich Eggs Give Window on Stone Age Humans’ Symbolic Thinking

80beats: World’s Oldest Flute Shows First Europeans Were a Musical Bunch

80beats: “Pornographic” Statue Could Be World’s Oldest Piece of Figurative Art

Images: Antiquity / J. Pettigrew

3 Free Articles Left

Want it all? Get unlimited access when you subscribe.


Already a subscriber? Register or Log In

Want unlimited access?

Subscribe today and save 50%


Already a subscriber? Register or Log In