A 45 year old female teacher had a history of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder, along with other problems including ADHD. Her daughter, and many other people in her family, had suffered the same problems, and in a few cases had Tourette's Syndrome.
[she] had a long history of constant intrusive and obsessive thoughts that interrupted her daily activities and sleep. She had constant unfounded fears that something bad would happen to her family and had persistent violent thoughts of using knives to harm family members. She would check the door locks up to 15 times a day. In addition to her OCD symptoms, she had ... inattention, poor concentration, and difficulty sitting still.
She had never been treated for the OCD, despite how it interfered with her life, because she feared losing her job as a teacher if she sought psychiatric help. But then...
Nine months before approaching us, she developed the acute onset of paresthesia [weird sensations] and weakness in the left upper extremity and face, associated with slurred speech. Initially, she was unable to lift her arm against gravity.
These are classic signs of a stroke, but it was a very mild one, because the symptoms only lasted a few minutes and were pretty much gone even before she arrived at the emergency room. She made a full recovery. More than a full recovery in fact:
Within weeks of her stroke, she realized that her obsessive and intrusive thoughts, fears, rituals, and impulsive behavior had completely resolved. In addition, there was some improvement in her temperament. There was no improvement in attention or concentration. Owing to her improvement in neuropsychiatric symptoms, she strongly felt that her stroke was beneficial. These benefits have persisted for 24 months.
Most medical case reports concern patients who died, or got really sick, in a particularly interesting fashion, but this one has a happy ending. Strokes can be devastating, of course, although people also make full recoveries - it all depends on the severity of the stroke, and whether they get prompt treatment. There have been a few other cases of brain damage which brought unexpectedly beneficial effects. In Vietnam veterans, for example, people with damage to the vmPFC due to combat trauma seemed to be protected from depression. Whether the stroke really cured her, or whether it was some kind of psychological "placebo" effect, we'll never know. It's hard to see why a stroke would have a placebo effect, but on the other hand, an MRI scan revealed that the stroke occured in an area of the brain - the right frontoparietal cortex - which is fairly low down on the list of "OCD-ish" areas.
The authors make some vague comments about "modulation of the cortical–subcortical circuits" but this is really the neuroscientific equivalent of saying "We guess it did something", because the entire brain is made of cortical-subcortical circuits, given that the cortex is at the top and everything else is, by definition, the sub-cortex. It's quite possible. But we really can't tell.
Diamond A, & Ondo WG (2011). Resolution of Severe Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder After a Small Unilateral Nondominant Frontoparietal Infarct. The International journal of neuroscience PMID: 21426244