Mind

The Age of ADHD

Neuroskeptic iconNeuroskepticBy NeuroskepticMar 14, 2012 12:23 AM

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Diagnosed rates of ADHD in American children have skyrocketed in the past 20 years, and use of medication such as Ritalin and Adderall has increased by an even greater amount.

So says

a report just out in Clinical Pediatrics

, using data from the major US National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS). The rate of office based visits (i.e. visits when a doctor saw or treated a patient, outside of a hospital) was the main outcome measure. The authors looked at the number of visits reporting a diagnosis of ADHD, and also the number of ADHD visits also involving psychostimulant medication, for kids aged 5 to 18.

See above - that's a big increase, and a lot of visits (remember the Y axis is visits per 1000children per year.) One thing to remember is that the increase might not mean that there are more patients with ADHD - it could reflect more visits per patient, but that seems unlikely to account for all of it.

A few thoughts -

The rise of ADHD parallels the recent increase in autism diagnoses. Yet people don't seem to be talking about it to the same extent. We're always hearing about "the autism epidemic", the "Age of Autism". Why aren't we equally concerned about the ADHD 'epidemic'? Why don't we have minor celebs railing about vaccine-damaged ADHD children?

Next - like autism - it seems likely that much or all of the increase is due to changes in awareness and willingness to diagnose the disorder. If so, logically, ADHD must either be being seriously overdiagnosed now, or was being seriously underdiagnosed previously. Or both.

This is especially true of boys. Rates in girls rose pretty much steadily for 15 years but in boys, there have been swings up and down, although the overall trend is still upward. It's always possible that this is a quirk of the NAMCS dataset, but if not, it suggests that ADHD diagnosis in boys is especially prone to changes in diagnostic fashion.

It's tempting, actually, to see the recent fall in boys with ADHD as a consequence of the rise of autism diagnoses over the same period. Autism is predominantly diagnosed in boys and the two disorders are often comorbid.

Maybe, boys are now getting autism diagnoses which are then felt to explain their behaviour, meaning that they don't "need" an ADHD diagnosis, which previously they would have got. But that's just my speculation, and it's probably reading too much into the data, because there was also a peak in 1994 which I can't see any explanation for.

Sclar DA, Robison LM, Bowen KA, Schmidt JM, Castillo LV, and Oganov AM (2012). Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children and Adolescents in the United States: Trend in Diagnosis and Use of Pharmacotherapy by Gender. Clinical pediatrics PMID: 22399571

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