What are Cannabinoids: Their Benefits, Side Effects, & More

By Sharon Milton
Jun 3, 2023 3:00 PMJun 3, 2023 10:13 PM


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Cannabinoids are compounds that are found in the cannabis plant. They interact with the body's Endocannabinoid System, which is responsible for a variety of physiological and cognitive processes. There are many different cannabinoids, each with its own unique properties. 

In this blog post, we will discuss the benefits, side effects, and more of some of the most common cannabinoids. We'll also venture to share that one brand, Penguin CBD has the best CBD tinctures available for you to buy today!

Cannabinoids are compounds found in cannabis and hemp plants that elicit a variety of effects. There are hundreds of cannabinoids, such as Delta-8-THC, THC, CBN, CBG - just to name a few getting traction. We understand what they do and where they come from. But, exactly what are they and what are the benefits of human use? 

You should understand the science behind these chemicals, no matter what your interest is in cannabis plant botany, medicine, or recreational themes. Let's have some fun and go on an exciting journey into the vast world of this understudied cannabis topic.

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What Are Cannabinoids?

Cannabinoids are a class of diverse chemical compounds that activate cannabinoid receptors in the body. The most well-known cannabinoid is tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is the psychoactive ingredient in cannabis.

Cannabis Sativa L. is the only botanical source of cannabinoids, but you can find them in other plants as well. The various cannabinoid kinds are next discussed in detail.


Cannabis contains phytocannabinoids, which are present in nature. The term "phyto" implies "related to plants.”

For the most part, phytocannabinoids are well known. CBD and THC are two prominent examples. Cannabis Sativa L contains over 100 different cannabinoids, however.


Although we'll concentrate on phytocannabinoids in this blog, endocannabinoids appear to have a more constant influence on our general health. "Endo" refers to the interior of an organism, so these cannabinoids are internal ones that our bodies produce naturally.

Continue reading below to learn more about these.

Let's first share some samples of cannabinoids: 

There are hundreds of cannabinoids in this plant, but they have no such cognitive effects as THC. On the other hand, these parts play an important role in determining your marijuana experience.

Let's look at some of the most and least significant cannabinoids created by cannabis Sativa plants, as well as those from other strains.

  • CBD (cannabidiol)

  • THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)

  • CBG (cannabigerol)

  • CBN (cannabinol)

  • CBC (cannabichromene)

  • CBT (cannabicitran)

  • CBV (cannabinodivarin)

  • CBR (cannabiripsol)

  • Anandamide (endocannabinoid)

  • 2-AG (endocannabinoid)

What Do Cannabinoids Do?

Cannabinoids are a class of molecules that interact with cannabinoid receptors in the human body. There are three main types of cannabinoids: phytocannabinoids, endocannabinoidannabin, and synthetic cannabinoids. Phytocoids are cannabinoids that come from plants, while endocannabinoids are cannabinoids that are produced by the human body. Synthetic cannabinoids are cannabinoids that are created in a lab.

Cannabinoids interact with cannabinoid receptors to regulate a variety of functions in the body, such as inflammation, pain perception, mood, and memory. They can also be used to treat a variety of medical conditions.

For example, CBD is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid that is often used to treat epilepsy and other neurological disorders. THC is a psychotropic cannabinoid that is often used to treat pain and nausea. CBG is a non-psychotropic cannabinoid that is being studied for its potential anti-cancer properties.

Cannabinoids can also be used recreationally. THC is the main psychoactive cannabinoid in marijuana, and it produces the "high" associated with smoking cannabis. CBD does not produce a high, but it has been shown to have a variety of medical benefits.

The entry in the 2008 edition of Journal of Biological Chemistry discusses how cannabinoids modify a variety of internal functions, including:

  • Appetite

  • Energy

  • Metabolism

  • Blood sugar

This list is hardly comprehensive, and it doesn't touch on several of the possible advantages of cannabis. Let's continue with that idea.

What are the Benefits of Cannabinoids?

Cannabis has been used as medicine for thousands of years. Several ancient texts extolled the plant's curative powers, which led to the creation of various pharmaceuticals and tens of thousands of choices.

However, there are a few cannabinoids that have been studied extensively, and these are the ones we'll discuss in this article. 

CBD and Its Benefits

CBD has been linked to a long list of health benefits, with preliminary evidence playing a large role.

Pain Perception

CBD may help to decrease pain perception, according on some evidence. In The Journal of Pain in 2021, researchers examined thousands of humans with fibromyalgia. Those who used CBD reported significant or moderate pain relief.

Cardiovascular Health

A recent research looked at the effects of CBD on blood pressure in a group of male individuals with high blood pressure who took 600 mg per day for several days. Men's blood pressure decreased, as well as their heart rates during stressful testing, in the presence of CBD.

However, owing to the fact that the study involved only nine subjects, it isn't very strong.

THC and Its Benefits

THC is a cannabinoid that has psychotropic, euphoric, and calming effects. It's typically used to make cannabis concentrates and edibles, but it's also found in hemp plants. Both THC and CBD have been associated with many health benefits, including pain relief. Although THC has psychoactive properties, the high from it can be quite tranquilizing

THC has a number of health advantages, despite its psychotropic effects.

Chronic Pain

THC and CBD may both assist with chronic pain management. In 2017, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine conducted a large study of thousands of academic papers.

The study discovered a meaningful link between cannabinoids, and pain relief.

Lung Health

According to conventional belief, smoking is bad for our lungs. This is true of cigarettes, but what about cannabis? There have been studies that looked into this topic for lung health. 

Cannabis smoke, like tobacco smoke, is not as dangerous to one's health as cigarettes. The researchers emphasize, however, that long-term, heavy cannabis smoking can harm the lungs. Instead of using cigarettes, we propose utilizing edibles, oils, or topicals as a substitute.

CBG and Its Benefits

Cannabigerol (CBG) is trending in the supplement industry, and more people are aware of its advantages. CBD and manufacturers of supplements are putting out a lot of effort to make the greatest CBG oil possible, with some success.


Appetite can be impacted by a variety of medical issues and therapies, including eating problems or chemotherapy. CBG, on the other hand, may aid in the restoration of appetite.

In 2016, research published in Psychopharmacology reviewed the appetite-stimulating capabilities of CBG in rats.

After researchers established a baseline for hunger, the rats were given CBG at a regular pace for a few days. The study concluded that while the amount of food consumed per feeding did not alter, the number of feedings per day increased.


Glaucoma was one of the first illnesses to be alleviated by medical cannabis, particularly via THC. However, a 2008 study published in the National Library of Medicine suggests that CBG may have an impact as well.

According to the periodical, the eye contains CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors. This explains why CBG binds to those receptors and provide comparable therapeutic benefits as THC in glaucoma.

CBN and Its Benefits

Cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol are two cannabinoids that have been researched somewhat more. However, there is no evidence to support the claims made regarding cannabidiol (CBD). Cannabinol (CBN) is a newer cannabinoid & has little research behind it. 

However, the unique feature of CBN is that it is the only other known cannabinoid besides THC with psychoactive effects. These impacts are so minimal (if at all) that they're barely perceptible. It can, however, provide a little additional oomph to THC's recreational high.


CBN is a research chemical that has been shown to have relaxing effects. This is primarily based on personal experience at this time, although there is one old 1975 study published in Karger. The test involved five male volunteers who were given either CBN or THC or both.

In a study of people with MS who were given cannabis and cannabinoids, researchers observed that while CBN alone did not seem to make much of a difference, those who received the combination dosage reported more dizziness, and drowsiness than those in the CBD, THC, and placebo groups.


CBN may have neuroprotective effects, according to a 2005 study by Weydt et al. on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in mice.

The scientists administered CBD (Cannabidiol) 5 mg/kg twice each day via a pump device to 20 mice with Alzheimer's disease. According to the research, "CBN significantly delays disease onset by over two weeks," and "longevity was not affected."

CBN, on the other hand, has shown promise in slowing down the progression of ALS and allowing for more time for traditional therapy.

CBDA and Its Benefits

CBDA is an acronym for cannabidiolic acid. This is a cannabinoid that is found in the cannabis plant. It has a number of potential benefits, including reducing inflammation and anxiety.

CBDA, on the other hand, is a derivative of CBD with greater bioavailability. CBDA's advantages are well known to CBD users since it has similar medical applications.


The anti-inflammatory effects of CBD may be due to CBDA. In 2008, researchers investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of THCA and CBDA in cultured cells.

Both THCV and CBDA showed anti-inflammatory effects when tested on the cells. CBDA, on the other hand, was more effective than THCA.

Both cannabinoids were found to act as COX-2 inhibitors, enzymes that create inflammation-inducing molecules. The inflammatory response could be reduced by inhibiting COX-2 with CBDA and THCA.

Breast Cancer

Surprisingly, the COX-2 inhibition seen in the preceding study also had a big influence on CBDA research.

COX-2 wasn't only linked to inflammation in a study published in 2014 by Takeda, et al. The enzyme was discovered to encourage breast cancer (and perhaps other types of) cells to proliferate and develop.

CBDA was used alone and along with COX-2 anti-inflammatory effects in breast cancer cells, the researchers discovered. The development of those cultured cells was eventually slowed as a result of their collaborative effect.

However, a Petrie dish study isn't comparable to real human research.

Do Cannabinoids Have Side Effects?

Cannabinoids do, in fact, have side effects. The side effects will vary from person to person based on weight, life circumstances, health status, and other information such as current medications. 

It's difficult to assess the negative effects of most Cannabinoids without many human tests. So, let's keep things simple: THC and CBD are still the most widely used substances.


From a recreational standpoint, many of THC's drawbacks are desired by consumers. Medical users, on the other hand, may not want to experience those effects. THC' side effects in some cases have no recreational benefit.

THC, according to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, can have a variety of negative effects when used in ways other than as prescribed. Side effects include:

  • Impaired memory

  • Loss of motor control

  • Dizziness

  • Confusion

  • Drowsiness

  • Nausea

  • Vomiting

  • Headache

  • Hallucinations

  • Rapid heart rate

  • Marijuana use disorder (addiction)

THC's negative effects are less severe than those of other substances, such as alcohol or cigarettes. However, it is critical to exercise extreme caution when using this cannabis product.

How Do Endocannabinoids Work?

Endocannabinoids are molecules that are produced by the body to help regulate essential functions such as sleep, appetite, mood, and pain. They work by binding to cannabinoid receptors located throughout the body.

There are two main types of cannabinoid receptors, CB₁ and CB₂. CB₁ receptors are primarily located in the brain and central nervous system, while CB₂ receptors are found mostly in the immune system.

The binding of endocannabinoids to these receptors alters the release of neurotransmitters in the brain, which in turn produces various effects on mood, pain perception, and other functions.

The human body also produces endocannabinoids. These are similar to cannabinoids found in Cannabis plants (phytocannabinoids), but they have different effects. Endocannabinoids produced by the body bind to both CB₁ and CB₂ receptors.

Endocannabinoids have an important role in maintaining a healthy equilibrium and regulating several vital processes, including:

  • Immune system

  • Chronic pain relief

  • Neuropathic pain relief

  • Mood

  • Appetite

  • Sleep

What to Look for When Buying Cannabinoids?

When looking to buy cannabinoids, it is important to look for a reputable and reliable source. Make sure that the company you are buying from has been in business for a while and has a good reputation. It is also important to make sure that the products they sell are of high quality and have been tested for purity.

So, how can you tell if one of the products you've found is worth trying? Well, we already mentioned that Verma Farms is by far the best CBD to buy based on the brand fitting the following pre-qualifications:

Company Reputation

Having a strong background with an even better positive consumer response boosts your credibility.

Giving newcomers a chance isn't always a bad idea, but you're more likely to enjoy a product that's been on the market for some time.

Verma Farms, for instance, has already made a name for themselves in the CBD industry.

Transparency & Purity

When it comes to buying cannabinoids, you want to make sure that the products are pure and have been tested for impurities.

The company should also be transparent about their manufacturing process and provide third-party lab results.

This way, you can be sure that you're getting a high-quality product.

Customer Service & Customer Reviews

It's important to find a company with excellent customer service in case you have any questions or concerns about the product.

A company can claim that its cannabis goods are fantastic, innovative, or anything else. However, individual consumers provide the greatest source of genuine and unbiased evaluations.

People who have tried the products are frequent visitors to Reddit and TrustPilot. They won't hold back on honest assessments.

Return Policy

Another thing to look for in the best cannabinoids company is their return policy. A stellar return policy guarantees are a sign that they're confident in their products.

It also shows that they're willing to work with customers if they're not satisfied with the product. At the end of the day, you want to be able to return a product if it doesn't meet your expectations.

Final thoughts on Cannabinoids, Benefits, and their Side Effects

There are hundreds of cannabinoids in the cannabis plant, but they're not the only ones. Endocannabinoids play an essential role in endocannabinoid signaling, which may be enhanced or aided by phytocannabinoid components such as CBD, THC, CBG, CBN, and CBDA.

Synthetic cannabinoids are different from real cannabis plants in that they contain a variety of chemical compounds that aren't found in the same quantities in natural cannabis plants. Their impacts are simulated rather than based on natural cannabinoid receptors, and they can be hazardous.

Cannabinoids aren't supported by thorough clinical human tests, despite the fact that CBD is effective against severe childhood epilepsy. This failure is quite inconvenient.

Hopefully, the plethora of preliminary studies will eventually result in more definitive human research.

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