Health

Ear wax table

Gene ExpressionBy Razib KhanFeb 1, 2006 6:38 AM

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I've been getting queries about the ear wax paper...below the fold I've copied table 1, which shows the frequencies of the haplotypes in various populations.

  • First, note the sample sizes.

  • Keep these sample sizes in mind as you try to get an understanding of the clines the authors were talking about.

  • Greg Cochran points out that since dry ear wax is a recessive trait it seems plausible that the phenotype being selected is different. It might be dominant or additive so that a total approach toward fixation of the allele would not be necessary for the fitness to be maximized. Consider the earwax trait, if allele frequences are 0.5 for both A and G in a population, you have 0.25 = AA, 0.5 = AG and 0.25 = GG. So Only 1/4 benefit from the fitness increasing trait. If it is a dominant feature somewhere else, you flip it, and with a 0.5 A frequency 3/4 of the population would maximize their fitness.

  • On the bit about randon genetic drift vs. selection, look at the map, if this allele was approaching fixation via stochastic processes it seems peculiar that it would exhibit a continental cline. Fragmented populations can fix at alternative alleles, but the distribution would be patchy and intercalated, not suggestive of a broad trend around an East Asian mode.

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Table 1

Published online: 29 January 2006; | doi:10.1038/ng1733

A SNP in the ABCC11 gene is the determinant of human earwax type

Koh-ichiro Yoshiura, Akira Kinoshita, Takafumi Ishida, Aya Ninokata, Toshihisa Ishikawa, Tadashi Kaname, Makoto Bannai, Katsushi Tokunaga, Shunro Sonoda, Ryoichi Komaki, Makoto Ihara, Vladimir A Saenko, Gabit K Alipov, Ichiro Sekine, Kazuki Komatsu, Haruo Takahashi, Mitsuko Nakashima, Nadiya Sosonkina, Christophe K Mapendano, Mohsen Ghadami, Masayo Nomura, De-Sheng Liang, Nobutomo Miwa, Dae-Kwang Kim, Ariuntuul Garidkhuu, Nagato Natsume, Tohru Ohta, Hiroaki Tomita, Akira Kaneko, Mihoko Kikuchi, Graciela Russomando, Kenji Hirayama, Minaka Ishibashi, Aya Takahashi, Naruya Saitou, Jeffery C Murray, Susumu Saito, Yusuke Nakamura & Norio Niikawa

Table 1 Genotypes at the rs17822931 site and frequencies of alleles A and

27 of ABCC11 among different ethnic populations

No. of individuals with genotypes

Ethnic populationsTribes or inhabitants studiedAA(frequency)GAGGNo. of individuals genotypedFrequency of allele A

Frequency of allele

Collected by

27

KoreanTaegu inhabitant99(1.000)00991.0000/190D.-K.K.

ChineseShanxi inhabitant (Northern Han Chinese)74(1.000)00741.000N.S.

Jingsu inhabitant (Northern Han Chinese)110(0.924)901190.962N.S.

Inhabitants of Fujian, Guanjgdong and Hunan Provinces (Southern Han Chinese)249(0.750)6383320.845N.S.

Han Chinese from multi-regions42(0.808)100520.9040/104D.S.L.

MongolianKhalkha tribe126(0.759)3641660.8670/252T.I., A.G.

JapaneseNagasaki inhabitant (western prefecture of Japan mainland)87(0.690)

35^a

41260.8291/668N.N.

Okinawa people (southwestern prefecture of Japan)30(0.517)253580.733T.K.

Yonakuni islander (western island of Japan)13(0.433)152300.6830/60S.S.

Ainu in Biratori-Nibutani village in Hokkaido32(0.552)242580.7590/116T.I., N.N.

VietnamesePeople from multi-regions82(0.536)60111530.732N.Na.

DravidianInhabitants of Tamil Nadu in India27(0.540)176500.7100/100T.I.

ThaiNorthern Thai (Lahu, Shan, Lisu, Hmong, Akha, Mlabri and Karen (Mae-sot Thai) tribes combined)215(0.505)163484260.6960/158 (Karen)T.I., K.H.

Central Thai in Bangkok31(0.633)108490.7351/100 (Bangkokian)T.I.

Southern Thai (Urak Lawoi and Sakai tribes combined)2(0.026)2352770.1750/52 (Sakai)T.I.

VeddaNative people in Sri Lanka7(0.350)121200.650T.I.

IndonesianDayak tribe in Kalimantan12(0.293)236410.573T.I.

Toraja and Bugis tribes in Sulawesi27(0. 270)49241000.515T.I.

Floresian18(0.300)2517600.508T.I.

Sumbanese9(0.180)1625500.340T.I.

Dani tribe in Irian Jaya0(0.000)231330.030T.I.

MalaysianSabah in North Borneo24(0.393)2710610.5660/132 (Sabah)K.H.

Bentong tribe8(0.113)4023710.3940/138K.H.

TaiwaneseTaiwan Aborigine (Yami and Ami combined)34(0.330)48211030.5630/100 (Ami)T.I.

Native American6(0.300)86200.5002/40R.K.

PhilippinoPalawan11(0.229)2314480.469T.I.

Easter Islander4(0.138)187290.448S.S.

BolivianAymara inhabitants5(0.167)1411300.4009/60S.S.

Kazakh6(0.200)1113300.383G.K.A.

Native ParaguayanAyoreos2(0.040)3414500.3800/98K.H.

Sanapana0(0.000)1461750.0930/150K.H.

Russian5(0.045)45621120.2460/208V.A.S.

Solomon Islander2(0.323)2535620.2340/122K.H.

Pacific islander1(0.143)1570.2140/14Coriell

FrenchFrom the CEPH families1(0.083)38120.2080/24CEPH

Andean people1(0.100)27100.2001/20Coriell

Hungarian0(0.000)46100.2000/20Coriell

JewishAshkenazi0(0.000)46100.2000/20Coriell

Ukrainian0(0.000)1527420.1790/84V.A.S.

PapuanPapua, New Guinea1(0.026)1126380.1710/68T.I.

European AmericanFrom CEPH families without the French and Venezuelans1(0.012)1665820.1100/164CEPH

Vanuatu islanderAneityum and Santo islanders combined1(0.011)1774920.1030/266 (Any and Gau islanders)K.H.

Iberian0(0.000)28100.100Coriell

Colombian0(0.000)215170.0590/34S.S.

VenezuelanInhabitants of Ye'Kuana and Sanuma villages0(0.000)329320.0470/64S.S.,CEPH

AfricanFrom various sub-Saharan nations0(0.000)110110.0450/22C.K.M.

African American0(0.000)010100.0000/20Coriell

D.-K.K., D.-K. Kim; N.S., N. Saitou; N.N., N. Niikawa; D.-S.L., D.-S. Liang; T.I., T. Ishida; A.G., A. Garidkhuu; T.K., T. Kaname; S.S., S. Sonoda; N.Na., N. Natsume; K.H., K. Hirayama; R.K., R. Komaki; G.K.A., G.K. Alipov; V.A.S., V.A. Saenko; C.K.M., C.K. Mapendanno; Coriell, from the Coriell Institute; CEPH, from the CEPH families.

^aOne exceptional case of dry cerumen who has

27 on the G allele is included.

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